Glitch in the Matrix
by Jayge 8^J
Richest 1%ers were impatient with their portfolios. Half the world's wealth didn't satisfy them; they exponentially craved it all. Didn't they deserve it for all their investing & sacrifice? Peons & poupons thrive on the society, infrastructure, & government built by Olympians, which they privately call themselves. All power, jobs, benefits, & charity flow from the top down, like champagne fountains. Historically, emperors, kings, sultans, & tsars took the lion's share, leaving subordinates & hyenas fight for scraps. Freemason upstart American colonists defied natural order by granting power to the people. Grossly miscalculating their odds in War of 1812, Civil War, & robber baron age, Olympians gradually got most of it back by the IRS, 'Fed', Great Depression, deregulation, 'Citizens United', as well as international trade deals like NAFTA, GATT, TPP, & USMCA. Details of their vast conspiracy are kept secret via barbarian death cult oaths. Despite their much-hyped virility, Olympians are basically cowardly bullies.: https://www.cnbc.com/2017/11/14/richest-1-percent-now-own-half-the-worlds-wealth.html
"United Nations Department of Peace Operations seeks DISARMAMENT, DEMOBILIZATION AND REINTEGRATION OFFICER 26 December 2019 - 08 February 2020 19-Security Institutions-DPO-127453-R-New York (R)"
"What our source reports is this: * There is a planned Third World War, which will be nuclear and biological. Our source believes that this is on track to be initiated within the next 18-24 months. * It is planned to begin with a strike by Israel on Iran. Either Iran or China will be provoked into a nuclear response. After a brief nuclear exchange, there will be a ceasefire. The world will be thrown into fear and chaos - all carefully engineered. * The extreme state of tension will be used to justify heavy social and military controls in all western first world nations. Plans are already in place for that. * During the nuclear ceasefire, there is planned to be a covert release of biological weapons. These will initially be targeted against the Chinese. As our source chillingly told us, "China will catch a cold". Biological warfare will spread further, to the west. Infrastructure will be critically weakened. * This is intended to be just the beginning. After this, a full nuclear exchange would be triggered: the "real" war, with widespread destruction and loss of life. Our source tells us that the planned population reduction through these combined means is 50%. He heard this figure stated in the meeting. This horrific scenario has been planned for generations. The first two world wars were part of the set-up for this final apocalypse - as is the centralization of financial resources that was precipitated with the equally well-planned financial collapse of October 2008. As if all this were not enough, our source speculates this is all set against the backdrop of a coming "geophysical event" - the same kind of event as was experienced by our ancestors approximately 11,500 years ago. If this event occurs - not necessarily expected in 2012, but sometime in the next decade - it would destroy civilization as we know it, dwarfing even the effects of a nuclear war. I asked the question to our source: If there's an expected catastrophe, then why initiate a Third World War? His answer, for the first time to me, made terrible sense. The real goal, he explained, is to set up the post-catastrophic world. To ensure that this "New World" [note the term] is the one the controllers want, totalitarian control structures need to be in place when the catastrophe occurs - with an excuse that the populace will accept and demand them. Martial law in the right, carefully chosen countries before the catastrophe occurs will enable the "right" people to survive and prosper in the post-catastrophic world, and the beginning of the next 11,500 year cycle. What may have been carefully planned on a covert global scale, for the last several generations, is nothing less than who will inherit the Earth. Who are the "right" people? The white Caucasians. This may be why the name of this project is The Anglo-Saxon Mission. Hence the justification for the planned genocide of the Chinese people - so that the New World is inherited by "us", not "them". Our source was not informed about the planned fate of the second and third world countries such as those in South America, Africa and Asia. But he presumes that these would be allowed to fend for themselves and probably not survive well - or maybe not at all. The totalitarian military governments of the western, white, people are set to be the inheritors. This is a plan so evil, so racist, so diabolical, so huge, that it almost defies belief. But it all aligns with what many commentators, researchers and whistleblowing insiders have been identifying for some years now. For me personally, it's the clearest picture yet of why the world is the way it is, and why the secrets are protected so fiercely: it may be all about racial supremacy. The Fourth Reich is alive and well. Astonishingly, our source was not pessimistic. He stressed, as do we and many others, that consciousness is awakening rapidly all over the planet and that THESE PLANNED EVENTS ARE NOT INEVITABLE. If ever there was a reason to work closely together to raise awareness of the real threat to us all, this is it." - Project Camelot
cōgitō et legō ergo sum. With glitches in the matrix, divergent quantum timelines, conspiracies galore, Mandela effects, & flat Earth fanatics, is reality broken?: https://twitter.com/nickhintonn/status/1151986453569605632?s=21
I read that Jeane Dixon, advisor to US presidents predicted assassinations of JFK, MLK, RFK, & Mohandas K. Gandhi. Also 2/5/1962 pre-7am Middle East birth of religious revolutionary. "Lydia Emma Pinckert, aka Jeane Dixon, January 5, 1904 Medford, Wisconsin January 25, 1997 (aged 93) Washington, D.C." "Dixon also had an alleged prediction about a war of "armageddon" to happen in the year 2020."
John Titor, aka TimeTravel_0, erstwhile 2036 US military time traveler, visited 2000-01 for personal reasons & spread disinfo after retrieving 1975 IBM 5100 special features to solve UNIX Y2038 snafu.: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Titor
The so-called 'Mandela Effect' is an inane side of a real phenomenon.: https://mandelaeffect.com/
While monitoring 140+ YouTube channels, I often find info not much seen elsewhere, yet still must sift to unearth real gems. This is weird. Why would IMDb post such an obviously wrong date?: https://www.imdb.com/title/tt5004118/?ref_=ttpl_pl_tt
"A glitch in the matrix is when a weird or unexplained event happens and it seems to tear a hole in the fabric of reality. It’s the kind of thing that gives you the sneaking suspicion that something isn’t right in the world. It could be a strange coincidence, a moment of déjà vu, a premonition or just something completely freaky." - scaryforkids.com
"Glitch in the matrix stories are firsthand accounts of some small but puzzling occurrence that has no logical explanation. The name comes from the movie ‘The Matrix’ where a ‘glitch’ drew someone’s attention to the fact that they were in a simulation. Glitch in the matrix stories evoke the feeling that the world is not as we’ve envisioned it to be." - thoughtcatalog.com
glitch in the matrix Def 1. From the 1999 film The Matrix: Referring to a human experiencing déjà vu as caused by the Machines altering the Matrix. Def 2. An explanation for an unlikely or irregular occurrence. Ex 1. Neo identified a glitch in the matrix when he saw the same black cat walk past the door twice. Ex 2. There must be a glitch in the matrix because I was struck by lightening and won the lotto all in the same day.": https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=glitch%20in%20the%20matrix
You won't believe what divergent quantum timelines I found. Some old top secret intelligence were at least partly declassified, like Philadelphia Experiment, Operations Backfire, Paperclip, Highjump, MKUltra, HAARP, & Manhattan Projects.: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philadelphia_Experiment
, & https://www.livescience.com/40172-declassified-military-cia-secrets/3.html
"Declassified CIA files on Reinhard Gehlen, the spymaster who served Adolf Hitler, NATO, and the CIA. The man whose intelligence reports on the Soviet Union influenced American foreign policy during the formative years of the Cold War, and whose organization paved the way for hundreds, if not thousands of SS, SD, and Gestapo men to move up into the American Intelligence Community.": https://archive.org/details/GEHLEN-Reinhard-CIA-files/page/n15
"This third day of October, 1942, is the first of a new era in transportation, that of space travel ..."— Walter Dornberger, speech at Peenemünde 10/3/1942
"I have had to apologize only to two men in my whole life. The first was Field Marshal von Brauchitsch. I did not listen to him when he told me again and again how important your research was. The second man is yourself. I never believed that your work would be successful."— Adolf Hitler, Apology to Major-General Dr. Dornberger, 7/8/1944 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Dornberger https://listverse.com/2018/03/21/10-nazi-scientists-who-survived-the-wa https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_H._Debus https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_Oberth https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dieter_Grau https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnus_von_Braun https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Rudolph https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_Blome https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubertus_Strughold https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Schreiber https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wernher_von_Braun
The Internet of Things will have SMART devices: Secret Military Armaments in Residential Technology. A certain pseudo-religious chronic criminal element of society chose to capitalize on, successfully co-opting evangelism's Armageddon lunatic fringe. "Alternate history or alternative history is a genre of speculative fiction consisting of stories in which one or more historical events occur differently. These stories usually contain "what if" scenarios at crucial points in history and present outcomes other than those in the historical record." - Wikipedia
The GOP aligned with dark forces long ago, i.e. meany Dick Cheney.: http://www.greatreality.com/Stars.htm
MeToo Democrats envy greedy Republican abuse of power. Too many readily accept 'free' trips to Israel, where they're given Bolshevik zionist lies that 'all Arabs are terrorists' & Israel is a 'democracy'. Hitler's eely Jewish coterie is now Machiavellian rogue state Israel. "Jewish Bolshevism, also Judeo–Bolshevism, is an anti-communist and antisemitic canard, which alleges that the Jews were the originators of the Russian Revolution in 1917, and that they held primary power among the Bolsheviks who led the revolution." - Wikipedia What's truly a canard is zionists' whiny denial. Wikipedia said Trump's 77 Electoral College surplus trumped Hillary's 2,868,686 US citizen voters surplus.
They poison vaccines with mercury, bacteria, detergents, & squalene adjuvants; our water with fluoride & drug residue; our food with herbicides, pesticides, chemical additives, & genetically-modified organisms (GMOs). Why is so little but rhetoric different when administrations change? Whether they've got you voting blue or red, just know that they're scrimmage squads of a one-party team. If you don't play along, they'll hang a label on you: antifa, anti-vaxxer, groyper, Luddite, anti-Semite, or the ultimate tinfoil hat conspiracy theorist, that comedian Sam Tripoli cleverly adopted as his defining meme, cuz humor fights fascism, as shown by Charlie Chaplin in The Great Dictator, 1940.
Nothingness Has Friction, & The Fastest Spinning Object Ever Made Could Measure It: https://www.sciencealert.com/nothingness-has-friction-and-we-need-the-fastest-spinning-object-ever-made-to-measure-it
What Planes? Doreen Dotan, laser fusion, 4th generation nukes, AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapon (JSOW), & BLU-97A/B Bomblets. Who knew the Rothschild dynasty had its superiors?: Dangoor, Sassoon, & Kadoorie Families. Internet Archive Wayback Machine: https://archive.org/web/
"When you have eliminated all that is impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth." Sherlock Holmes: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2DIl3Hfh9tY
Top physicist Leonard "Susskind is widely regarded as one of the fathers of string theory. He was the first to give a precise string-theoretic interpretation of the holographic principle in 1995 and the first to introduce the idea of the string theory landscape in 2003. Susskind was awarded the 1998 J.J. Sakurai Prize, and the 2018 Oskar Klein Medal.": https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonard_Susskind
"1. Unidirectional Time Travel — A one-way time travel trip changes quantum states, diminishes entropy & starts a new, dominant, order-laden, entropy-lessened timeline. Differences in overall entropy are what keep timelines naturally separate from each other. This is known as a Temporal Divergence.
- Bidirectional Time Travel — Two-way time travel trips produce timelines that are naturally attracted to each other within the multiverse. This is known as Quantum Entanglement. Only one set of quantum states can survive the entanglement past the time travel incidents. Since a system always tends toward a higher entropy state, the quantum states of the lower-entropy, higher-order timeline will become dominant. Still following? Confused? Keep reading…it’ll click.
- Metatime Is Unalterable — Metatime is the sequence of time travel events as they occur in the multiverse. This sequence cannot be averted through time travel, as the multiverse is a timeless void outside of the special realm of the timelines. This means that all timelines exist simultaneously (an important and crucial distinction to this whole theory). Which timeline a time traveller will arrive in at any particular moment in time is determined according to which timeline is most order-laden at the time period in question. This is known as a natural landing.
- Leaving the Universe — It is possible to travel to & from transdimensional, non-time space which exists outside of the timelines but within the overall multiverse. Fluidic space (Species 8472), the transdimensional realm (Sphere Builders) and the Q Continuum are examples of non-timeline areas within the total confines of the multiverse but that also does not exist within a timeline or universe. Entering a timeline from these spaces also changes quantum states and can result in divergent timelines (save for the Q Exception that says that the Q are, somehow, able to avoid this).
- Temporal Cold War Addendum A — The 31st century Federation time travellers (represented by Agent Daniels in Enterprise) can choose recessive timelines instead of dominant timelines to travel to and from. This is known as an artificial landing and is a crucial element of control in the Temporal Cold War. Other factions of the TCW cannot produce an artificial landing. The organization Daniels represents operates from an observatory that is technically outside time in the transdimensional area of the multiverse and is known by the shorthand Daniels Temporal Observatory, or DTO. The actions of the DTO are also governed by rules 1 & 2 in that their activity can spawn divergent timelines.
- Temporal Cold War Addendum B — The Temporal Accords (31st century) disallow travelling directly to a timeline. Instead, it allows Quantum Projection, a kind of real-ish holographic projection (maybe), which is safer for the time traveller. However, quantum projection still alters quantum states and creates divergent timelines. This is standard practice for 31st-century humanity as well as the Benefactor to the Suliban Cabal from the 28th century. This also explains a lot of the incidents that happen to Agent Daniels (like his many deaths, which are Quantum Projections dying, not the actual Agent Daniels). The DTO and Benefactor make use of quantum projection.
- Temporal Cold War Responsibility Addendum — In agreement with the Temporal Accords, participating time travellers must “counterweight” their respective travels in order to ensure that the correct timeline remains dominant (see Rules 1 & 2). Agent Daniels is assumed to do this in much of his work, as well as on behalf of other time travel scenarios. This is known as an Induced Quantum Entanglement, or IQE(pronounced “Ike”). This is how you decide which timeline will be dominant.
- Law of Divergent Universes — Timelines that have been left unaltered by time travel for an unknown, lengthy span of meta time will take up a position within the multiverse architecture and become a permanent universe. Once this happens, the new universe cannot be quantum entangled with the old one. The Terran Imperial Universe (Mirror Universe), for example, might have been a timeline that split from our own Prime Universe. When the Terran Imperial Universe was just a divergent timeline, after it diverged from the Prime Universe, it was left unaltered for enough time as to allow it to drift into a position “perpendicular” to the prime universe, which disallows timeline merging but does not restrict travel. The Kelvin Timeline (Abramsverse or J.J Verse), as a second example, is just a split timeline. If elder Prime Universe Spock never travels back to the future (which he knows not to do, if you’ll note), then the Kelvin Timeline may drift to a “perpendicular” state with respect to the Prime Universe, becoming a permanent universe of its own. When an unaltered temporal divergence becomes its own universe free from entanglement from the parent universe, this is known as a Parallel Universe Bifurcation." - United Federation of Planets, Department of Temporal Investigations, Admiral Myrkal Sharr, USS Clepsydra
Pragmatic SpaceX engineers urged a redundant fleet, like Battlestar Galactica, still leaders opted for a cheaper unifying solution & put all of their egghead billionaires into one big basket. The mighty MAGA Mogen David set solar sail to former polestar Thuban (Alpha Draconis), but BDShacker's opsis virus left it adrift in the asteroid belt. ""Aristotle's use of the term opsis, as Marvin Carlson points out, is the "final element of tragedy," but the term "receive[d] no further consideration"." Last we heard, those CO-NE drone spacey spud taters tried to get a jump-start from Elon Musk's Tesla Roadster.: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elon_Musk's_Tesla_Roadster
ISAIAH Part Two submitted by
– Chapters 40 to end
Isaiah contains some of the building blocks for Revelation: dragons, heavenly beings, the celestial city, judgment. The returnees were subject to the same hard choices as before; how to live on a new economy. Wherever they went there was already an established order, but to assimilate was to disappear. What to do?
One with knowledge of the past is as useful as one with knowledge of the future if none other has knowledge of either.
I. The eminent coming of God (subdivisions according to the exegesis in The Interpreter’s Bible
It was here that, my first time through, I began to use substantially the system I still use when I encounter a word I don’t know. I look the word up in my Bantam-Megiddo pocket dictionary (first, backed up by Avinoam’s three volume Hebrew-English, Hendrickson’s Interlinear and Strong’s concordance, and, when all else fails Shoshan’s seven volume Hebrew-Hebrew dictionary – when the word is found in any of these I add it to the pocket dictionary), write the full definition in the margin, then select the closest word and write it over the word I looked up. My reader, whose memory is fading, will appreciate being reminded that one of my goals is to have a completely annotated Hebrew Bible, a goal that was set back when Shutz, the devil dog, ate my first attempt when I had reached Proverbs. It is only now, second time through, that I am able to use the tattered remnants of that partially digested volume to help complete this one. I have to copy it in, of course, but that takes a fraction of the time. Introductions
From The New Jerome Biblical Commentary
: “Until the 18th cent., it was presumed that Isaiah of Jerusalem (Isa) wrote all 66 chaps. of the book under his name… The tradition of single authorship was questioned by Ibn Ezra5
. 1167… but the vigorous attack came from J. C. Döderlein6
(1775) and J. G Eichhorn7
(1780-83). These scholars maintained that chaps. [chapters] 40-66 were written by a different author, who lived some 150 years later during the Babylonian Exile. They named him Deutero- or Second Isaiah (Dt-Isa). In 1892, B. Duhm8
argued for a separate author of the Suffering Servant songs… and of chaps. 56-66, whom he called Trito- or Third Isaiah (Tr-Isa). Protestant scholars were generally convinced by the soundness of the new arguments. Catholics, although with some hesitation, tended to agree… A negative response of the Pontifical Biblical Commission, June29, 1908, precipitated by fears of the Modernist movement, made Catholic scholars revert to an ultraconservative viewpoint of single authorship… Once the theological problems were solved, so that the inspiration of major parts of the Bible was not being questioned but only the literary and historical questions of an author’s name and date, Catholics began to argue again for the split authorship of Isa… Most Catholic scholars now work with a Dt- and Tr-Isa thesis.
“Dt-Isa preached during the latter part of the exile period, around 550. Cyrus is already on the march (41:1; 45). Because there is a dramatic shift between chaps. 41-48 and 49-54, both in mood and in important themes, chaps. 49-54 represent the prophet’s profound disappointment with those who dominated the first return to Palestine in 537 and his eventual rejection by them. The four major songs of the Suffering Servant derive from the repudiation of Dt-Isa by the returnees. Led by Hag [Haggai] and Zech [Zechariah] the high priest Joshua and the governor Zerubbabel, they preferred the theology of the other prophet of the exile, Ezek [Ezekiel]. Tr-Isa continues the same distancing from the returnees, a group much more narrow in their views, not at all open even to Israelites who remained behind in the land and never went into exile (Hanson).
“The MT [Masoretic Text (of the Hebrew Bible)] is very well preserved. Among the DSS [Dead Sea Scrolls] 1QIsaa is remarkably similar to the MT and 1QIsab is almost identical. The LXX [Septuagint (Greek translation of the Old Testament)] is quit inferior. The Vg. [Vulgate (common Latin version of the Bible)] tends to sharpen messianic interpretations (42:8)” (Stuhlmueller, 1990, pp. 329-331)
“… it would be the most astonishing of all miracles, if the Hebrew writings of the Old Testament had come down to us through their hands absolutely pure, and free from all mistakes whatsoever.” (Adam Clarke, 1831, p. III 887)
The introduction to chapters 40 through 66 is 30 pages long in The Interpreter’s Bible. You will thank me later.
“The poetic sequence in Isa. [Isaiah] 40-55 represents the noblest literary monument bequeathed to us from Semitic antiquity…
“Nowhere in the whole O.T. [Old Testament, the Hebrew Bible] do we possess a continuous series of poems by a single author of a range comparable to these chapters in Isaiah, with the possible exception of the book of Job, to which, interestingly enough, they have many important relationships…
“Its prophetic thought and form move naturally from the great pre-exilic prophets, more especially Isaiah of Jerusalem, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel…
. – Isaiah of Jerusalem lived in the second half of the eighth century B.C. and addressed himself to the conditions existing at that time. Judah and Israel were still in existence as independent kingdoms. Their kings are referred to by name… and the prophet’s encounters with them are described in simple narrative discourse. Assyria was the oppressing power; Sargon and Sennacherib are clearly referred to… In chs. 40-55, however, the background is the middle of the sixth century B.C., the close of the neo-Babylonian period. Israel has long ceased to be a kingdom, and Judah is languishing in Babylonia exile. Cyrus king of Persia is twice mentioned by name…
. - … The philosophy of history of chs. 40-66 is much more highly developed than that in chs. 1-39. The portrait of God as creator and redeemer has no close parallel in Isaiah of Jerusalem. The conception of the remnant is not the same. The difference between the Messiah of 9:1-6 and 11:1-9 and the portrait of the servant of the Lord in chs. 40-55 is so great that even if the servant is interpreted messianically, it is hard to believe that the two figures are the creation of a single mind. …
“... Hugo Gressmann9
… the supplementary reflections, with which the oracles are surrounded, have grown luxuriantly over everything, so that the lines of division between an utterance of God and an utterance of the prophet cannot always be clearly recognized.
“… we cannot expect to find the kind of continuity we see in Western literature, or even in such a book as Job, for again and again it will appear that verses and strophes break in without any apparent relation to the context. But when we perceive the dominant themes the progress of thought becomes more intelligible…
“Even more important is the continuity of the prophet’s thought…
“In ancient Israel language possessed a primitive vitality that is relatively alien to the modern Western mind. The relation between sound and meaning was grasped with an immediacy and directness that are best understood by children and poets.
“Poet and prophet meet in Second Isaiah. It is difficult to say whether he is more the one than the other; the distinction would not have occurred to him.
“In Second Isaiah the meter is seldom regular throughout a single poem. Many poems are, to be sure, dominated by the 3+3 or the 3+2, but even within these categories there is variety in the number of words for a single accent.
“The scope of the poet’s perspective, the literary forms and types, the imminence of a great divine event, decisive and redemptive, make these poems the supreme achievement of the Hebrew mind in history.
“Neither Oriental antiquity nor the Bible has anything to match such sheer literary artistry” (Muilenburg, 1954, pp. V 392-392)
“…The Decline of Assyria
.- In the century which comes under our immediate purview, extending from the death of the last of the great Assyrian kings in 631 B.C. to the conquest of Babylon by Cyrus II in 538 B.C., events occurred which were destined to influence profoundly not only the political fate of nations but also their thought and faith…
“The death of Ashurbanipal in 531 B.C. gave the signal for change. Nabopolassar, the ruler of the Chaldean state, threw off the bonds of Assyrian vassalage. The Medes under Cyaxares asserted their independence. Scythian hordes from beyond the Caucasus added to the general melee. Herodotus reports that they invaded Media, ‘became masters of Asia,’ and dominated it for twenty-eight years. Egypt was experiencing a recrudescence of her ancient vitality under the energetic Psamtik I (663-609 B.C.) and engaged in the struggle for empire. Phoenicia gave notice that she would no longer take orders from Assyria. In Israel there arose a national movement under Josiah (640-649/8 B.C.), and the able king extended his territory to the north. The Babylonia Chronicle10
reports the history of the conflict between Assyria and the Medes and Babylonians from 6161-610 B.C. In 612 B.C. Nineveh fell, an event which the book of Nahum memorialized in a triumphant and stinging cry of jubilation. Pharaoh Necho came to the support of the Assyrian king, who had taken refuge in the ancient city of Harran. On his way he called Josiah king of Judah to account at Megiddo for his bold assertion of independence and nationalistic ambition, and the king was put to death. Finally at ancient Carchemish the opposing forces of the Babylonians and the Egyptians met, and Nebuchadrezzar, the son of Nabopolassar, won a decisive victory.
“…In Judah, Jehoiakim – who Necho had placed on the throne in place of Jehoahaz, the choice of the anti-Egyptian party – made his peace with the Babylonian king, but after three years revolted. Troops were dispatched to quell the revolt. The second revolt culminated in the first captivity of 597 B.C. Jehoiakim died before the city was taken, but his son Jehoiachin, a mere youth, was put in chains and taken as prisoner to Babylon, to remain there for thirty-seven years. Zedekiah succeeded Jehoiachin and ruled for eleven years (597-586 B.C.). In 588 B.C. the kingdom rebelled once more, and in 586 on the ninth of Ab the Babylonians entered the city. Zedekiah, who sought to escape was captured at Jericho and sent to Nebuchadrezzar at Riblah. His sons were executed, and he was blinded and sent to Babylon where he died shortly afterward. A month after the conquest Jerusalem was completely destroyed, the temple burned, and a part of the population carried into exile. The royal line of David had come to an end, the sanctuary built by Solomon lay in ashes. A long chapter of history came to a close, and a new chapter opened.” (Muilenburg, 1954, pp. V 394-395)
“… in 553 B.C. Cyrus, the king of the little principality of Elam, challenged the Median power…. By 550 B.C. he succeeded in defeating Astyages when the latter’s won troops went over to him. In 547 B.C. Cyrus followed his victory over the Medes by a campaign in the north, where he overran the regions formerly held by Astyages. Croesus, the fable king of Lydia, prepared to engage him in conflict. Cyrus met the enemy in the broad valleys near the ancient Hittite city of Pteria… Croesus retired to Sardes where he disbanded his armies. Winter was approaching, and Croesus did not expect Cyrus to press the battle. But Cyrus urged on his troops, and Sardes fell. The Persian Empire now extended from the Persian Gulf to the Halys River. Babylon and Egypt were confederate with Lydia, and it was natural that these powers would fear that they would be the next to be challenged… According to Berossus11,
Cyrus reduced the rest of Asia in the interval. Xenophon12
states that Cyrus subdued the Phrygians in Great Phrygia, overcame the Cappadocians, and made the Arabs subject to him. Sidney Smith thinks these ‘Arabs’ were the people of the Damascus area and Palestine
“Naobonidus returned to the capital. In the fall of 539 B.C. Cyrus engaged in battle at Opsi on the Tigris…. Sippar fell without resistance, and by a clever piece of strategy in which the flow of the river was reduced, the troops of Cyrus, under Gobryas, who had deserted Naobonidus, entered the ancient city.
“On October 13, 539, Babylon fell. The propaganda went out that all was done at the will and behest of [the god] Marduk… Marduk called Cyrus for his service. ‘He scanned and looked (through) all the countries, searching for a righteous ruler willing to lead him (in the annual procession). … He pronounced the name of Cyrus, king of Anshan, declared him to be(come) ruler of all the world… He made him set out on the road to Babylon going at his side like a real friend.’ The words of the Cyrus Cylinder13
have so many affinities with Second Isaiah… that some scholars have declared that the two cannot be independent…
“The number of the Judeans who had been carried into exile was not large. In what appears to be an official document, the book of Jeremiah states that in the three exiles of 597, 586, and 581 a total of 4,600 persons was carried to Babylonia. Nor was their lot grievous. They apparently enjoyed considerable freedom. … Land was assigned to them, and many of them became farmers… As time went on some of them engaged in trade, and by the fifth century many of them had acquired a reputation in business.
“The practice of the regular cult was impossible, especially in view of such standards as the Deuteronomic reformers had set. The sacrificial cult was not practiced. But with the absence of institutions associated with the holy temple other practices received all the greater emphasis. The importance of the Sabbath as a holy day was accentuated… Doubtless the practice of circumcision was strictly observed… It is possible that … the synagogue found its origin, but we have not direct evidence for this.
“Judah had suffered heavily from the invasion of the Babylonians. Most of the fortified towns were destroyed, as is now confirmed by the excavations of such places as Debir, Lachish, and Beth-shemesh. Tribes from the south pressed into Judah. The Edomites (Idumeans) occupied a portion of the land formerly belonging to her. The rich and the skilled had been carried off to exile, and the population was in general poor. Samaria became the center of the Babylonian province. There were Israelites in the north, as in Galilee, and in Trans-Jordan. The judgment that fell upon Judah did not bring to an end the practices of the syncretistic cult. It was certainly not in Egypt alone that the Jews were attracted by the worship of Ishtar14,
the mother goddess (Jer. 44, especially vss. 16-19). The picture of conditions in Palestine that we receive from Third Isaiah is of a cult that had absorbed many foreign elements, some of them very strange and reminiscent of the mysteries.
“… Next to nothing is known of the author of chs. [chapters] 4-55 and the external facts of his life. Even his name is lost to us…. He stands in lineal succession to the great pre-exilic prophets indeed his is the only prophetic voice which could meet the disaster and the resulting dejection of 586 B.C. with a faith undimmed and a vitality undaunted….
“Of the many places that have been proposed as the home of Second Isaiah, Babylon has the best claim.” (Muilenburg, 1954, pp. 396-397)
“… the thought of Second Isaiah is eschatological, and the primary matrix of all the poems is eschatological. When we speak of eschatology, we refer to the imminence of a great divine event which is to mark the decisive end of the age.
“God’s decision to enter upon the stage of world history is first announced in heaven (40:1-11). This decision exacts responsibility. The way of the Lord must be prepared, for upon it he will appear (40:3) to lead his exiles home (42:16; …). This is the new event that he will perform… The mountains and hills will be leveled, the crooked roads made straight, the valleys raised… Again and again Yahweh’s advent is described in language drawn from the Exodus…
“When God appears in his glorious theophany15
, his glory, the central Old Testament theologoumenon16
for Yahweh’s self-manifestation, will appear… The announcement of its imminent appearing is the occasion for the prophet’s call… and provides the content of his gospel…” (Muilenburg, 1954, p. V 399)
“…The Redeemer of Israel
. - … The term ‘redeemer’ is drawn from family law. The redeemer as the nearest male relative is under obligation to guarantee the family solidarity. Thus when a kinsman has been sold into slavery, the redeemer pays a sum of money to purchase him back. Similarly, if the family’s blood has been shed, the redeemer must avenge it…
“In the first place, the term is used in a juristic sense in which the physical aspects of the redemption are stressed. Yahweh performs the duties of the redeemer (gȏ’ēl
) by paying the ransom for his people… he avenges himself upon those who have violated what belongs to him…
“In the second place, however, the redemption is inward and spiritual. Yahweh acts for the comforting of his people. He wipes out their sins… As in Jeremiah’s eschatological oracle of the new covenant (Jer. 31:31-34), the coming of God is the time of forgiveness. He acts not because Israel possesses any merit of her own; indeed, Israel did not deserve to be redeemed. Yahweh acts for his own sake… that his name should not be profaned… and for his glory and praise…. He redeems because he is powerful to redeem; he is Israel’s mighty One, the Lord of hosts, the coming conqueror.” (Muilenburg, 1954, pp. V 400-401)
“…The Servant of the Lord
“The dramatic movement of the first three poems, which form a kind of eschatological trilogy (see pp. 447; 467), comes to a climax with the entrance of the servant of the Lord upon the stage of world history. The announcement in the celestial council of Yahweh’s imminent advent (40:1-11), the change of scene from heaven to earth in the poem on Yahweh, the creator, whose climaxes fall invariably upon the events of history (40:12-31), and the great trial of the nations, where contemporary events are adduced by God for the nations’ response, form a background against which the figure of the servant emerges…
“…at this point a problem is raised that has exercised the minds of scholars perhaps more than any other single Old Testament question. For in the first reference (41:8-10) the servant is equated with Israel in the most emphatic fashion, and the words addressed to her are of the greatest significance; in the second reference (42:1-4) the words are also singularly fateful and full of destiny, but no reference is made to Israel.
“… if the servant songs are the work of Second Isaiah and an integral part of his poetic compositions, then the servant of the Lord is certainly Israel… there is one consideration, perhaps outweighing all others, which makes the problem exceedingly acute and difficult. This is the portrait of the servant in the songs as compared with the portrait in the poems. For the position of those who see in the songs a separate collection, either by another author or by Second Isaiah himself in a later stage of his prophetic career, is that the figure presented in the songs is an individual person… This position has been admirably stated by Johann Fischer:
The servant of Yahweh and the servant Israel are … basically different in their character. The servant Israel is despondent and faint-hearted [versagt] and must be admonished again and again to turn to trust in God… the servant of Yahweh overcomes momentary despair through unshakable trust in God… The servant of Yahweh is guiltless and sinless (50:5; 53:4-6, 12), the servant Israel on the contrary is a sinner from birth (48:4; cf. 43:27). The suffering of the servant of God is only explicable as suffering for the sins of others (53:4-6, 9, 11-12), the servant Israel suffers in exile for his own sins… The servant of Yahweh suffers patiently… the servant Israel in discouragement… the servant of Yahweh suffers voluntarily, he intercedes for the sinners; the servant Israel suffers unwillingly, and his enemies are to be avenged… To this basically different characterization is to be added the fact that the servant of the pericopes has an active mission to Israel…. Finally the servant of Yahweh has a mission of suffering for Israel (52:13-53:12) and thus cannot be identical with Israel.
“Between the servant of the songs and the servant of the poems there is a profoundly interior relation; they move on the same lofty plane and descend to the same depths. For this portrait the prophet utilized the classical materials to which he was heir: protology17
, with its reflection upon the primordial deeps; eschatology, with its reflection upon the wonders of the fulfillment of the divine purpose in the holy, chosen, called, redeemed, and covenanted people; history, as it was understood in the sacred tradition in the light of the great international movements of the sixth century B.C., and the contemporary events in which Cyrus, Yahweh’s chosen deliverer, is the central figure…
“There… remains one problem of great importance and difficulty. How is the servant of the Lord to be related to Israel’s messianic conceptions and especially to the figure of the Messiah? Not a few scholars see in the servant the features of the divine king as he appears in the royal psalms and elsewhere (e.g., II Sam. [Samuel] 21:17; Lam. [Lamentations] 4:20). On the basis of such passages as Pss. [Psalms] 2; 18; 89; 118:5 ff.; etc., Aubrey R. Johnson concludes:
The Davidic king is the Servant of Jahweh; but… at the New Year Festival he is the suffering Servant. He is the Messiah of Jahweh; but on this occasion he is the humiliated Messiah. The fact is that we are here dealing with a ritual humiliation of the Davidic king which in principle is not unlike that suffered by the Babylonian king in the analogous new Year Festival.
“But that the Davidic Messiah is to be identified with the servant is hard to believe, for there is no credible evidence that the two were equated before the Christian Era…
“The servant stands at the eschaton. It is precisely in this kind of setting that all that is said concerning him and all that he has himself to say have meaning and relevance. Because of this position in which he stands, the figure was susceptible of messianic interpretation.
“It is on the foundation of Second Isaiah’s eschatological poems that the authors of the Gospels write their accounts of Jesus of Nazareth. The earliest of them opens his Gospel with a quotation from the opening poem of Second Isaiah and sees its fulfillment in John’s preaching (cf. 40:3 and Mark 1:1-3), and Matthew and Luke refashion the account each in his own dramatic way… The writer of the Fourth Gospel makes the words even more dramatic and momentous (John 1:19-23)
“Millar Burrows concludes …the following judgment: ‘It is … fair to say that from Acts on the identification of Jesus with the Suffering Servant of the Lord is constant in the New Testament, and there is no compelling reason to doubt that Jesus himself originated the idea.’ H. Wheeler Robinson, who holds the same view as Burrows, remarks as follows:
It is no exaggeration to say that this is the most original and daring of all the characteristic features of the teaching of Jesus, and it led to the most important element in His work… There is no evidence of a suffering Messiah in previous or contemporary Judaism to explain the conception in the consciousness of Jesus.” (Muilenburg, 1954, pp. V 406-414) FOOTNOTES 6
Johann Christoph Döderlein (1745 – 1792) was a German theologian.
As professor of theology at Jena from 1782, he was celebrated for his varied learning, for his eloquence as a preacher, and for the important influence he exerted in guiding the transition movement from strict orthodoxy to a freer theology. His most important work Institutio theologi christiani nostris temporibus accommodata
was published in 1780. - Wikipedia 7
Johann Gottfried Eichhorn (1753, – 1827) was a German Protestant theologian of Enlightenment and early orientalist.…
Eichhorn has been called "the founder of modern Old Testament criticism." He recognized its scope and problems, and began many of its most important discussions. …His investigations led him to the conclusion that "most of the writings of the Hebrews have passed through several hands." He took for granted that all the supernatural events related in the Old and New Testaments were explicable on natural principles. He sought to judge them from the standpoint of the ancient world, and to account for them by the superstitious beliefs which were then generally in vogue. He did not perceive in the biblical books any religious ideas of much importance for modern times; they interested him merely historically and for the light they cast upon antiquity.
He regarded many books of the Old Testament as spurious, questioned the genuineness of the First and Second letters of Peter and the Epistle of Jude, denied the Pauline authorship of the First and Second letters to Timothy and to Titus. He suggested that the canonical gospels were based upon various translations and editions of a primary Aramaic gospel …. He challenged the Augustinian hypothesis solution to the synoptic problem and proposed an original gospel hypothesis (1804) which argued that there was a lost Aramaic original gospel that each of the Synoptic evangelists had in a different form. – Wikipedia 8
Bernhard Lauardus Duhm (1847 – 1928) was a German Lutheran theologian born in Bingum, today part of Leer, East Frisia.
He studied theology at the University of Göttingen, where he had as instructors Albrecht Ritschl (1822-1889), Heinrich Ewald (1803-1875) and Julius Wellhausen (1844-1918), with the latter becoming a good friend and colleague to Duhm. In 1873 he became a lecturer at Göttingen and subsequently an associate professor of Old Testament studies (1877). In 1888 he relocated to the University of Basel, where he was one of the more influential Old Testament scholars of his time.
Duhm is remembered for his exegetical work on the prophets of the Old Testament, particularly studies dealing with the complexities of the Books of Jeremiah and Isaiah. He pioneered the theory of multiple authors of the book of Isaiah. His commentary outlined the structure and content of Isaiah 1-39 called first Isaiah or Isaiah of Jerusalem. Duhm in the same commentary provides an in-depth analysis of the "Deuterojesaja" (Second Isaiah, chapters 40-55), and the so-called "Tritojesaja" (Third Isaiah, chapters 56-66). - Wikipedia 9
Hugo Gressmann (1877 – 1927) was born in Mölln. He was a prominent Old Testament scholar… who carried over the work of Gunkel in which he used the Gattungsgeschichte method of Biblical study (otherwise known as Form Criticism) and applied it to the books of Exodus, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 & 2 Samuel and 1 & 2 Kings, in the Old Testament. He took a traditio-historical approach in examining these passages, aiming to examine individual units so as to glean from them their original setting and purpose. - Wikipedia 10
The Babylonian Chronicles are many series of tablets recording major events in Babylonian history. They are thus one of the first steps in the development of ancient historiography. The Babylonian Chronicles were written from the reign of Nabonassar up to the Parthian Period, by Babylonian astronomers ("Chaldaeans"), who probably used the Astronomical Diaries as their source.
Almost all of the tablets are currently in the possession of the British Museum. – Wikipedia photo
“This clay tablet is a Babylonian chronicle recording events from 605-594BC. It was first translated in 1956 and is now in the British Museum. The cuneiform text on this clay tablet tells, among other things, 3 main events:
The Battle of Carchemish (famous battle for world supremacy where Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon defeated Pharoah Necho of Egypt, 605 BC.),
The accession to the throne of Nebuchadnezzar II, the Chaldean, and
The capture of Jerusalem on the 16th of March, 598 BC.” - http://www.bible-history.com/babylonia/BabyloniaThe_Babylonian_Chronicle00000196.htm 11
Berosos or Berossus (name possibly derived from was a Hellenistic-era Babylonian writer, a priest of Bel Marduk and astronomer who wrote in the Koine Greek language, and who was active at the beginning of the 3rd century BC. Versions of two excerpts of his writings survive, at several removes from the original. – Wikipedia 12
Xenophon (Greek: Ξενοφῶν) ; c. 430 – 354 BC), also known as Xenophon of Athens, was a Greek historian, soldier, mercenary, philosopher and a contemporary and admirer of Socrates. He is known for his writings on the history of his own times, the 4th century BC, preserving the sayings of Socrates, and descriptions of life in ancient Greece and the Persian Empire. – Wikipedia 13
The Cyrus Cylinder (Persian: منشور کوروش) is an ancient clay cylinder, now broken into several fragments, on which is written a declaration in Akkadian cuneiform script in the name of the Achaemenid king Cyrus the Great. It dates from the 6th century BC and was discovered in the ruins of Babylon in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) in 1879. It is currently in the possession of the British Museum photo
- Wikipedia 14
Ishtar Akkadian: is the Assyrian and Babylonian goddess of fertility, war, love, and sex. She is the counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate north-west Semitic goddess Astarte. … her cult involved sacred prostitution. photo 15
Theophany, from the Ancient Greek (ἡ) θεοφάνεια (theophaneia
, meaning "appearance of God"), refers to the appearance of a deity to a human or other being. - Wikipedia 16
Theologoumenon - a theological statement or concept in the area of individual opinion rather than of authoritative doctrine - http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/theologoumenon
Is it me, or is this word misused here? 17
Protology "Corrected" to proctology by spell check An Amateur's Journey Through the Bible
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